Notas para el estudio de Endodoncia


Ir a FES Iztacala

Odontología basada en evidencias

Sección 4: Antimicrobianos



Contenido de la Unidad

1ª Sección

13.1. Estado actual de la microbiología endodóntica
13.1.1. Flora microbiana
13.2. Control microbiológico
13.2.1. Frotis
13.2.2. Cultivos Medios Técnica Limitaciones del cultivo Usos del cultivo en endodoncia

2ª Sección

13.3. Asepsia y antisepsia en endodoncia
13.3.1. Protocolo Aséptico.
13.3.2. Esterilización
13.4. Utilización del control microbiológico en clínica e investigación
13.4.1. Desinfectantes Categorías de utilización Desinfectante ideal

3ª Sección Medicamentos intraconductos Curación provisional

4ª Sección

13.4.3. Antimicrobianos específicos en endodoncia Pacientes de alto riesgo Antibióticos de elección
13.4.4. Investigación en endodoncia

Palabras clave:
Key words:




Endodontic Study Guide

Microbiology in Endodontics: An Online Study Guide


The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present the topical areas of microorganisms involved in primary infection; microorganisms involved with failing endodontics, culturing, bacteremia, and endodontics; leaving teeth open; antibiotics; actinomycosis; sterilization of instruments and sterilization of gutta-percha, microorganisms in periradicular lesions; biofilms; and fungi, viruses, and prions.

Bacteremia and Endodontics

  1. I.B. Bender, S. Seltzer and M. Yermish, The incidence of bacteremia in endodontic manipulation: preliminary report, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 13 (1960), pp. 353–360. Abstract | Article | PDF (575 K)
  2. L. Eisenbud, Subacute bacterial endocarditis precipitated by non-surgical dental procedures: Report of two cases, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 15 (1962), pp. 624–627. Abstract | Article | PDF (1102 K)
  3. I.B. Bender, S. Seltzer, S. Tashman and G. Meloff, Dental procedures in patients with rheumatic heart disease, Oral Surg 16 (1963), pp. 466–473. Abstract | Article | PDF (610 K)
  4. J.C. Baumgartner, J.P. Heggers and J.W. Harrison, The incidence of bacteremias related to endodontic procedures: I. Nonsurgical endodontics, J Endod 2 (1976), pp. 135–140. Abstract | PDF (2469 K
  5. J.C. Baumgartner, J.P. Heggers and J.W. Harrison, Incidence of bacteremias related to endodontic procedures: II Surgical endodontics, J Endod 3 (1977), pp. 399–402. Abstract | PDF (427 K)
  6. I.B. Bender, I.J. Naidorf and G.J. Garvey, Bacterial endocarditis: a consideration for physician and dentist, J Am Dent Assoc 109 (1984), pp. 415–420
  7. I.B. Bender and S. Montgomery, Nonsurgical endodontic procedures for the patient at risk for infective endocarditis and other systemic disorders, J Endod 12 (1986), pp. 400–407. Abstract | PDF (903 K)
  8. E. Leviner, A.A. Tzukert, R. Benoliel, O. Baram and M.N. Sela, Development of resistant oral viridans streptococci after administration of prophylactic antibiotics: time management in the dental treatment of patients susceptible to infective endocarditis, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 64 (1987), pp. 417–420. Abstract | Article | PDF (376 K)
  9. R.C. King, J.J. Crawford and E.W. Small, Bacteremia following intraoral suture removal, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 65 (1988), pp. 23–28. Abstract | Article | PDF (540 K)
  10. G.A. Cioffi, G.T. Terezhalmy and G.M. Taybos, Total joint replacement: a consideration for antimicrobial prophylaxis, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 66 (1988), pp. 124–129. Abstract | Article | PDF (656 K)
  11. I.B. Bender and M.J. Barkan, Dental bacteremia and its relationship to bacterial endocarditis: preventive measures, Compendium 10 (1989), pp. 472–482
  12. J.P. Nelson, R.H. Fitzgerald, M.T. Jaspers and J.W. Little, Prophylactic antimicrobial coverage in arthroplasty patients, J Bone Joint Surg Am 72 (1990), p. 1. Full Text via CrossRef
  13. J.A. Giglio, R.W. Rowland, H.P. Dalton and D.M. Laskin, Suture removal-induced bacteremia: a possible endocarditis risk, J Am Dent Assoc 123 (1992), pp. 65–70.
  14. M.J. Wahl and P.T. Wahl, Prevention of infective endocarditis: an update for clinicians, Quintessence Inter 24 (1993), pp. 171–175
  15. M.K. Shrout, F. Scarbrough and B.J. Powell, Dental care and the prosthetic joint patient: a survey of orthopedic surgeons and general dentists, J Am Dent Assoc 125 (1994), pp. 429–436.
  16. G.J. Debelian, I. Olsen and L. Tronstad, Bacteremia in conjunction with endodontic therapy, Endod Dent Traumatol 11 (1995), pp. 142–149. Full Text via CrossRef
  17. A.R. Brown, C.J. Papasian, P. Shultz, F.C. Theisen and R.E. Shultz, Bacteremia and intraoral suture removal: can an antimicrobial rinse help?, J Am Dent Assoc 129 (1998), pp. 1455–1461
  18. C.S. Miller, R.M. Egan, D.A. Falace, M.K. Rayens and C.R. Moore, Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, J Am Dent Assoc 130 (1999), pp. 387–391.
  19. American Dental Association, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Advisory Statement: Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental patients with total joint replacements, J Am Dent Assoc 134 (2003), pp. 895–898
  20. W. Wilson, K.A. Taubert and M. Gewitz et al., Prevention of infective endocarditis: guidelines from the American Heart Association, J Am Dent Assoc 138 (2007), pp. 739–76

Leaving Teeth Open

  1. F.S. Weine, H.J. Healey and E.P. Theiss, Endodontic emergency dilemma: leave tooth open or keep it closed?, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 40 (1975), pp. 531–536. Abstract | PDF (461 K)
  2. D.S. August, Managing the abscessed tooth: instrument and close?, J Endod 3 (1977), pp. 316–319.
  3. R. Bence, R.D. Meyers and R.V. Knoff, Evaluation of 5,000 endodontic treatments: incidence of the opened tooth, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 49 (1980), pp. 82–84. Abstract | Article | PDF (247 K)
  4. D.S. August, Managing the abscessed open tooth: instrument and close—part 2, J Endod 8 (1982), pp. 364–366. Abstract | PDF (493 K) |
  5. J.O. Torres, M. Torabinejad, R.A. Matiz and E.G. Mantilla, Presence of secretory IgA in human periapical lesions, J Endod 20 (1994), pp. 87–89. Abstract | PDF (264 K) |
  6. L.S. Tjaderhane, U.H. Pajari, R.H. Ahola, T.K. Backman, E.L. Hietala and M.A. Larmas, Leaving the pulp chamber open for drainage has no effect on the complications of root canal therapy, Int Endod J 28 (1995), pp. 82–85. Full Text via CrossRef


  1. E.H. Montgomery and D.C. Kroeger, Principles of anti-infective therapy, Dent Clin North Am 28 (1984), pp. 423–432.
  2. E.H. Montgomery and D.C. Kroeger, Use of antibiotics in dental practice, Dent Clin North Am 28 (1984), pp. 433–453.
  3. R. Bainton, Interaction between antibiotic therapy and contraceptive medication, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 61 (1986), pp. 453–455. Abstract | PDF (239 K)
  4. A.K. Olson, E.M. Edington, J.C. Kulild and R.N. Weller, Update on antibiotics for the endodontic practice, Compendium 11 (1990), pp. 328–332
  5. E.V. Hersh, Adverse drug interactions in dental practice: interactions involving antibiotics: Part II of a series, J Am Dent Assoc 130 (1999), pp. 236–251.
  6. ADA Council on Scientific Affairs, Antibiotic interference with oral contraceptives, Am Dent Assoc 133 (2002), p. 880.
  7. J.C. Baumgartner and T. Xia, Antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria associated with endodontic abscesses, J Endod 29 (2003), pp. 44–47. Article | PDF (117 K) | Full Text via CrossRef

Microorganisms in Periradicular Lesions

  1. E. Shindell, A study of some periapical roentgenolucencies and their significance, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 14 (1961), pp. 1057–1065. Abstract | Article | PDF (619 K)
  2. K. Langeland, R.M. Block and L.I. Grossman, A histopathologic and histobacteriologic study of 35 periapical endodontic surgical specimens, J Endod 3 (1977), pp. 8–23. Abstract | PDF (3036 K)
  3. L. Tronstad, F. Barnett, K. Riso and J. Slots, Extraradicular endodontic infections, Endod Dent Traumatol 3 (1987), pp. 86–90. Full Text via CrossRef
  4. A. Bystrom, R.P. Happonen, U. Sjogren and G. Sundqvist, Healing of periapical lesions of pulpless teeth after endodontic treatment with controlled asepsis, Endod Dent Traumatol 3 (1987), pp. 58–63. Full Text via CrossRef
  5. L. Tronstad, D. Kreshtool and F. Barnett, Microbiological monitoring and results of treatment of extraradicular endodontic infection, Endod Dent Traumatol 6 (1990), pp. 129–136. Full Text via CrossRef
  6. P.N. Nair, U. Sjogren, G. Krey, K.E. Kahnberg and G. Sundqvist, Intraradicular bacteria and fungi in root-filled, asymptomatic human teeth with therapy-resistant periapical lesions: a long-term light and electron microscopic follow-up study, J Endod 16 (1990), pp. 580–588. Abstract | PDF (17071 K) |
  7. L. Tronstad, F. Barnett and F. Cervone, Periapical bacterial plaque in teeth refractory to endodontic treatment, Endod Dent Traumatol 6 (1990), pp. 73–77. Full Text via CrossRef
  8. C. Iwu, T.W. MacFarlane, D. MacKenzie and D. Stenhouse, The microbiology of periapical granulomas, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 69 (1990), pp. 502–505. Abstract | PDF (404 K)
  9. B.E. Wayman, S.M. Murata, R.J. Almeida and C.B. Fowler, A bacteriological and histological evaluation of 58 periapical lesions, J Endod 18 (1992), pp. 152–155. Abstract | PDF (614 K)
  10. R.E. Walton and K. Ardjmand, Histological evaluation of the presence of bacteria in induced periapical lesions in monkeys, J Endod 18 (1992), pp. 216–217.
  11. G.V. Vigil, B.E. Wayman, S.E. Dazey, C.B. Fowler and D.V. Bradley Jr, Identification and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from periapical lesions, J Endod 23 (1997), pp. 110–114. Abstract | PDF (515 K)
  12. J.F. Siqueira Jr and H.P. Lopes, Bacteria on the apical root surfaces of untreated teeth with periradicular lesions: a scanning electron microscopy study, Int Endod J 34 (2001), pp. 216–220. Full Text via CrossRef
  13. P.T. Sunde, I. Olsen, G.J. Debelian and L. Tronstad, Microbiota of periapical lesions refractory to endodontic therapy, J Endod 28 (2002), pp. 304–310. Article | PDF (1299 K) | Full Text via CrossRef
  14. D. Ricucci, E.A. Pascon, T.R. Pitt Ford and K. Langeland, Epithelium and bacteria in periapical lesions, Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 101 (2006), pp. 239–249. Article | PDF (1463 K)


JOE Editorial Board. Microbiology in Endodontics: An Online Study Guide. JOE may 2008;34(5-1):e151-e164 . Disponible en http://www.sciencedirect.com

Investigado por Dr. Ricardo Rivas Muñoz, Profesor de endodoncia, FES Iztacala, UNAM



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